Saturday, May 23, 2020

J.R.R Tolkien Believed Fairy Tales were Corrupted by...

Fairy tales have been told for generations and now every child has dolls, movies and books filled with magical adventure. Cinderella, Sleeping beauty, and Snow white have become classics in every household. However, J.R.R. Tolkien described in his essay â€Å"On Fairy Stories† that the world has corrupted fairy tales by making them childlike and denoting them to evil. Our culture prescribed fairies to be diminutive, supernatural creatures; however, fairies are neither small nor necessarily supernatural. A fairy is a direct product of Faerie, which is â€Å"the realm or state in which fairies have their being† (Tolkien â€Å"On† 2). Fairy stories are derived from the human mind, more so the imagination. Without the imagination, Faerie would be dull. The†¦show more content†¦One guiding force of the novel is the omnipresent good that guides Frodo and the fellowship through disastrous times. A glimpse of this force is shown when the Fellowship reaches the transcendent Lothlorien, and Legolas exclaimed that they wandered into the Golden Wood (Tolkien Fellowship 378). This is a beautiful, light filled Elvish kingdom that contrasts many others of Middle Earth, like the Mines of Moria. Legolas finds his true happiness with these elves because their home arouses his desire to be in the undying land. Humans, like elves, long for this undying land, but through religion. Fairy tales then encourage readers to withstand the trouble of the world and arouse the desire to be with their Creator outside this known realm. Escapism, another function of Fairy tale is experienced in Lord of the Rings. Although highly criticized, Tolkien believed that escape is a necessary and beneficial element of fairy stories. Men face â€Å"hunger, thirst, poverty, pain, sorrow, injustice, death† and even the weaknesses of themselves in which â€Å"fairy stories offer a sort of escape† (Tolkien â€Å"On† 12). This escape from life is one that the Primary World cannot offer. In fairy tales the other creatures become the weaknesses and troubles of this world. These â€Å"other creatures are like other realms with which Man has broken off

Monday, May 18, 2020

Constructing a Deductive Theory

There are two approaches to constructing a theory: deductive theory construction and inductive theory construction. Deductive theory construction takes place during deductive reasoning in the hypothesis-testing phase of research. Process The process of developing a deductive theory is not always as simple and straightforward as the following; however, the process generally involves the following steps: Specify the topic.Specify the range of phenomena your theory addresses. Will it apply to all of human social life, only U.S. citizens, only middle-class Hispanics, or what?Identify and specify your major concepts and variables.Find out what is known about the relationships among those variables.Reason logically from those relationships to the specific topic you are studying. Pick a Topic of Interest The first step in constructing a deductive theory is picking a topic that interests you. It can be very broad or very specific but should be something that you are trying to understand or explain. Then, identify what the range of phenomena is that you are examining. Are you looking at human social life across the globe, only women in the United States, only poor, sick children in Haiti, etc? Take Inventory   The next step is to take inventory of what is already known about that topic or what is thought about it. This includes learning what other scholars have said about it as well as writing down your own observations and ideas. This is the point in the research process where you will likely spend a great deal of time in the library reading scholarly literature on the topic and devising a literature review. During this process, you will likely notice patterns discovered by prior scholars. For example, if you are looking at views on abortion, religious and political factors will stand out as important predictors in many of the previous studies you come across. Next Steps After you’ve examined the previous research conducted on your topic, you are ready to construct your own theory. What is it that you believe you will find during your research? Once you develop your theories and hypotheses, it is time to test them in the data collection and analysis phase of your research. References Babbie, E. (2001). The Practice of Social Research: 9th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson.

Monday, May 11, 2020

Fahrenheit 451 Vs. Looking Backward - 1560 Words

Fahrenheit 451 vs. Looking Backward In any society, there are bound to be flaws. In both Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy and Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury, major flaws of humanity are highlighted. Both authors discuss many issues we face, and offer ways to improve these issues. Bradbury suggests that society is too conformed, and the government is being hypocritical by telling us to fear a community in which everything is the same while facilitating that very type of place. Everyone in this cookie cutter world that Bradbury describes is identical. He suggests that the solution to this would be to let everyone live the way they want, with the freedom to be themselves and express their opinions. Bellamy argues that in our†¦show more content†¦Many people were unhappy, but chose to live a life of ignorance in order to protect themselves from the harms of the world, and to please the authority. Montag, the protagonist, was perhaps the most unhappy of all, thinking t o himself, â€Å"he was not happy. He was not happy. He said the words to himself. He recognized this as the true state of affairs† (Bradbury, 9). The underlying meaning of his writing could be interpreted as a jab at communism, considering he wrote his novel in 1953 which was during the early beginnings of the Cold War against the Soviet Union. Communism can be defined as a theory advocating for a culture in which all property is publicly owned and each person is given a rationed pay according to their needs. In Bradbury’s futuristic utopia, people have no privacy and everyone is brainwashed into thinking the same thing. When comparing communism with Bradbury’s society, the similarities are evident. During the Cold War, anyone associated with communism would be scrutinized and excluded from the community, because those were the people who wanted to conform under the government. Bradbury is criticizing a power force that encourages a lack of classes and his prop osed solution is to let the people earn what they deserve. While Bradbury believed that people should not conform under the government rules, Bellamy most likely would have thought that communism would have been a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The First Layer Of The Unconscious - 1570 Words

The first layer of Carl Jung was also called the personal unconscious is basically the same as Freud’s kind of the unconscious. The particular unconscious has temporality elapsed information and well as repressed retentions. Jung (1933) outlined an important article of the personal unconscious called complexes. A complex is a collection of opinions, moods, attitudes and memories that focus on a particular idea. The more elements attached to the complex, the greater its effect on the individual. Jung also said that the personal unconscious was much nearer the exterior than Freud advised and Jungian therapy is less concerned with repressed infantile knowledges. It is the present-day and the future, which in his opinion was the strategic to†¦show more content†¦While he was becoming a teen he started reading books and that is where he found out he actually loves philosophy. While Jung was growing he started noticing that he had two personalities just like his mother. Th is personalities are modern Swiss, and the other personality is more to the eighteenth century. The Swiss personality describes more a schoolboy living in the new era. The other one is describing a man which is very influential from the past. Jung decided just to study medicine,but the he developed that he had an spiritual interest in phenomena while he was attending school. Since Jung was into this two interest he then discovered a carrier that was a combination of both carrier which is psychiatry In 1902 he completed his doctoral in Psychology and Pathology of So-CAlled Occult Phenomena. Jung also graduated of a medical degree from the University of Basel. Jung got married in 1903 with Emma Rauschenbach, they were together since until the year of her death which it was 1955. But the death of her wife did not stopped him from having other woman. After having several romances with several women Jung felt in love with his very first patient at the Burgholzli Psychiatric Hospital. She was a Russian named Sabina Spielrein, they exchanged letters for several years. A couple time after they were doing this they broke up their romance since he found out that while they were together he was having negativity in his carrier. Jung also worked

Breaking DES (Data Encryption Systems) Free Essays

string(146) " In order to design a secure cryptosystems, there is a need for a mixture of well known principles, some theorems and the presence of some magic\." Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an algorithm for decrypting and encrypting unstipulated information in the United States administration standard. DES is derived from IBM’s Lucifer code and is depicted by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 46, with its current modification being FIDS 46-3 (Conrad, 2007). DES is a mass code that takes a plaintext sequence as a key in and generates a code transcript wording of the same measurement lengthwise. We will write a custom essay sample on Breaking DES (Data Encryption Systems) or any similar topic only for you Order Now The mass of the DES obstruct is 64 bits which is also the same for the input dimension even though the 8 bits of the key are for the recognition of faults making the efficient DES input amount 56 bits. Because of the progressions in the authority of dispensation in workstations there are weaknesses in the 56-bit key extent presently (Conrad, 2007). In the company of proper hardware, there is a best chance assault on methodical efforts to all the 72 quadrillion hence, there is a possibility of dissimilar inputs. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) developed into an innovative FIPS-standard encryption average in 2001, 26th November to replace DES. Statistics Encryption Algorithm explains the definite algorithm as contested to the average. In such circumstances, TDEA is a short form for Triple DES. At the same time, there is a description of Triple Data Encryption Algorithm Modes of Operation ANSI X9. 52-1998 (Clayton Bond, 2002). History of DES DES was proposed in 1975 and approved in 1977 as a federal information processing standard. It was criticized by the people who felt that it’s 56 key lengths to be insecure. In spite of this, DES remained a strong encryption algorithm until mid 1990. In the year 1998 summer, the insecurity of DES was demonstrated when a $ 250,000 computer which was built by the electronic frontier foundation decrypted a DES-encoded message in 56 hours. This was improved in the 1999 to 2002 hours through a combination of 100,000 networked personal computers and the EFF machine. DES remains a de facto standard unless a substitute is found (Landau, 2000, p. 341). A certified DES is obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) works in three key lengths: 128, 192, and 256 bits. The publication of DES indicated a new era in cryptography. The development in the community of public cryptographers was enhanced by having an algorithm availability of study that the national security agent certified to be secure (Landau, 2000, p. 341). The (DES) Data Encryption Standard A system that encrypts quickly but is essentially what is impossible to break is all what cryptographers have always wanted. Public key systems have captured the imagination of mathematicians because of their reliance on elementary number theory. Public key algorithms are used for establishing a key because they are too slow to be used for most data transmissions. Private key system does the encryption because they are typically faster than public key ones (Landau, 2000, p. 341). The data Encryption Standard (DES) workhorse uses private key algorithm besides relying on cryptographic design principles that predate public key. The RC4 in web browsers and the relatively insecure cable TV signal encryption are an exception to DES. DES is the most widely used public cryptosystem in the world. It is the cryptographic algorithm which is used by banks for electronic funds transfer. It is also used for the protection of civilian satellite communications. Still, a variant of DES is used for UNIX password protection. There are three operation of the DES which involves XOR, substitution and permutation. The DES is an interrelated block cipher and a cryptosystem on a block of symbols that sequentially repeats an internal function which is called a round. It encrypts data by the use of a primitive that operates on a block of symptoms of moderate size. Self invert ability is also essential to enable one of the objects to encrypt and decrypt. When encrypting ordinary text, DES begins by grouping the text into 64 bit block. A number of operations are performed by the DES on each block (Landau, 2000, p. 343). The transformation of how the block is to be carried out is determined by a single key of 56 bits. DES iterates sixteen identical rounds of mixing; each round of DES uses a 48-bit sub key. The DES begins with an initial permutation P and ends with its inverse. The permutations are of minor cryptographic implications but forms part of the official algorithm. The selection of sub keys starts by splitting the 56-bit key into two 28-bit halves and rotating each half one or two bits; either one bit in rounds 1, 2, 9, and 16 or two bits otherwise. The two halves are put back together and then 48 particular bits are chosen and put in order (Landau, 2000, p. 343). Attacks of DES The selection of DES was followed by protests in which case some of the researchers appeared to object to the algorithm small key space. Investors in the key public cryptography claimed that a DES encoded message could be broken in about a day by a $ 20 million machine made up of a million specially designed VLSI capable of searching one key per microsecond while working in parallel. The use of a meet in the middle attack to break a four round version of DES did not extend past seven rounds (Landau, 2000, p. 345). This is evidence that, for all these attacks none of them posed a serious threat to the DES. Other attacks on the DES were performed to poke harder to the innards of DES. This brought anomalies which led to the first attacks that were seen to be more theoretically better than exhaustive search. The attacks were against the block structure system and the need of all block-structured cryptosystems needed to be designed to be secure against differential and linear cryptanalysis. There is a strong attack to DES which is differential cryptanalysis. This is apparently known to the algorithms designers. In order to design a secure cryptosystems, there is a need for a mixture of well known principles, some theorems and the presence of some magic. You read "Breaking DES (Data Encryption Systems)" in category "Papers" Attacks on a cryptosystem fall into two categories which are passive attacks and active attacks. The passive attacks are the ones which adversely monitors the communication channel. They are usually easier to mount although they yield less. The active attacks have the adversary transmitting messages to obtain information (Landau, 2000, p. 342). The aim of the attackers is to determine the plaintext from the cipher text which they capture. A more successful attack will determine the key and thus compromise a whole set of messages. By designing their algorithms, cryptographer’s help to resist attacks such as cipher text only attack whose adversary has access to the encrypted communications. The known plain text attack which has its adversary has some plain text and its corresponding cipher text. The third attack which can be avoided is the chosen text attack and its adversary chooses the plain text for encryption or decryption. The plain text chosen by the adversary depends on the cipher text received from the previous requests (Landau, 2000, p. 342). Observations about DES The simplicity found in the DES amounts to some fully desirable properties. To start with it is the complementation. To illustrate, allow X to denote the bitwise complement of X. If C is the DES encryption of the plaintext P with key K, then P is the DES encryption of P with key K. In some cases the complementation can simplify DES cryptanalysis by basically cutting the investigating space in half. These properties do not cause serious weakness in the algorithm. The set generated by the DES permutations do not form a group. The group may have at least 102499 elements. There is strength in the DES when it lacks a group structure. It appears to be double encryption where this is twice by two different keys, EK2 (EK1 (P) and is not stronger than single encryption. The reason is that when meeting in the middle attacks for a given plaintext cipher text pair, an adversary will compute all 256 possible enciphering of the plaintext i. e. EKi (P), and indexes the same. The adversary will then compute all possible deciphering of the cipher text (Landau, 2000, p. 345). Models of DES There are four forms of DES, which are accepted by FIPS 81. They include (ECB) Electronic Codebook form, code mass sequence form (CFB), productivity reaction form (OFB) and system response (CFB). The forms are used to with both DES and Triple DES. Within each form, there are main dissimilarities which are based on the fault proliferation and obstruct vs. tributary codes (Conrad, 2007). Electronic Codebook (ECB) Mode In this form of encryption, there is sovereign encryption into respective blocks of codes text. It is done by means of Feistel code which generates 16 sub-inputs derived from the symmetric input and also encrypts the plaintext using 16 surroundings of conversion. Similarly, the development is used in the conversion of code text reverse into simple text with the dissimilarity that, 16 sub inputs are contributed in overturn arrangement. The result of repeated blocks of identical plaintext is the repeated blocks of cipher text which is capable of assisting in the vault investigation of the code wording. In Appendix 1 there is an illustration of the result (Conrad, 2007). The first picture of SANS symbol is the bitmap layout. The second picture is the encrypted logo of SANS bitmap via DES ECB form. The visibility of the model is due to the recurring of masses of the simple wording pixels in the bitmap which are encrypted into masses which are repeated and are of particular code pixels. In this form, faults do not proliferate due to the autonomous encryption of each obstruct. Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode The CBC form is an obstruct code which XORs every original obstruct of simple wording with the previous block of code wording. This indicates that repeated obstructs of simple wording do not give rise to repeated obstructs of code wording. CBC uses a vector of initialization which is an arbitrary original obstructs used to make sure that two simple wordings result in different code wordings. In figure 2 of the Appendix there is a clear illustration of the same SANS symbol bitmap data, encrypted with DES CBC form. There is no visibility of any prototype which is true for all DES forms apart from ECB. Therefore, in this mode, there is proliferation of faults as each prior step’s encrypted output is XORed with the original obstructing of simple wording (Conrad, 2007). Cipher Feedback (CFB) Mode The Cipher Feedback Mode is a tributary code that encrypts simple wording by breaking into X (1-64) bits. This permits encryption of the level of byte or bits. This mode uses an arbitrary vector of initialization. The preceding elements of code wording are XORed with consequent components of code wording. Therefore, in this mode of CBC there is proliferation of faults (Conrad, 2007). Output Feedback (OFB) Mode Similar to CFB form, the productivity reaction form makes use of the vector of random initialization and also encrypts simple wording by shattering downward into a tributary by encrypting components of X (1-64) bits of simple wording. This form fluctuates from CFB form by generating a simulated-arbitrary tributary of productivity which is XORed with the plaintext during every step. Therefore, the productivity is fed back to the simple wording and because the output is XORed to the simple wording, faults there is no proliferation of mistakes (Conrad, 2007). Counter (CTR) Mode The oppose form is a tributary code similar to OFB form. The main disparity is the accumulation of contradict obstructs. The offset can be supplementary to an arbitrary importance that is used only once and then increased for each component of simple wording that is encrypted. The initial counter obstructs acts as a vector of initialization. Therefore, in each surrounding there is XORing of the offset obstructs with simple wording. Accumulation of offset obstructs permits disintegration of encryption into equivalent phases, improving presentation on a suitable hardware. There is no proliferation of mistakes (Clayton Bond, 2002). (Table 1 in the Appendix summarizes the Data Encryption Standard). Triple DES (T DES) In anticipation of 2030, TDES can be used as FIPS encryption algorithm which is permitted in order to allow conversion to AES. There are three surroundings of DES which are used by TDES which have an input extent of 168 bits (56 * 3). There is a possibility of reduced effective key length of TDES to roughly 12 bits though beast might assaults against TDES re not realistic at present (Conrad, 2007). Architecture for Cryptanalysis All modern day practical ciphers both symmetrical and asymmetrical make use of security apparatus depending on their key length. In so doing, they provide a margin of security to cover from computational attacks with present computers. Depending on the level of security which is chosen for any software application, many ciphers are prone to attacks which unique machines having for instance a cost-performance ratio (Guneysu, 2006). Reconfigurable computing has been recognized as way of reducing costs while also acting as an alternative to a variety of applications which need the power of a custom hardware and the flexibility of software based design such as the case of rapid prototyping (Diffie Hellman, 1977, pp. 74-84). What this means is that cryptanalysis of today’s cryptographic algorithms need a lot of computation efforts. Such applications map by nature to hardware based design, which require repetitive mapping of the main block, and is easy to extend by putting in place additional chips as is needed. However, it should be noted that the mere presence of resources for computation is not the main problem. The main problem is availability of affordable massive computational resources. The non-recurring engineering costs have enabled hardware meant for special purpose cryptanalysis in virtually all practicable situations unreachable. This has been unreachable to either commercial or research institutions, which has only been taken by government agencies as feasible (Diffie Hellman, 1977, pp. 74-84). The other alternative to distributed computing with loosely coupled processors finds its base on the idle circles of the large number of computers connected through the internet. This method has considerably been successful for some applications. However, the verified detection of extraterrestrial life is considerably still a problem more so for unviable problems with power of computing in a particular organization (Guneysu, 2006). In cryptanalysis some algorithms are very suitable for special-purpose hardware. One main example for this is the search for the data encryption standard (DES) (FIPS, 1977). What this means is that a brute- force attack is more than twice the magnitude faster when put in place on FPGA’s as opposed to in software on computers meant for general purposes at relatively the same costs (FIPS, 1977). That notwithstanding, for many crypto algorithms the advantages due to cost-performance of hardware meant for special purposes over those meant for ordinary purposes is not really as dramatic as is usually the case of DES, more so for public-key algorithms (Guneysu, 2006). Arising from the advent of low-cost FPGA families with much logic approaches recently, field programmable gate arrays offer a very interesting way for the thorough computational effort which cryptanalysis needs (Lesnsta Verheul, 2001, pp. 255-293). Many algorithms dealing with the most important problems in cryptanalysis is capable of being put in place on FPGAs. Code breaking though, requires more additional efforts as opposed to just programming a single FPGA with a certain algorithm (Electronic Frontier Foundation, 1998). Owing to the enormous perspectives of cryptanalysis problems, many more resources as opposed to FPGA are needed. This implies that the main need is massively powerful parallel machinery suited to the requirements of targeted algorithms. Many problems are capable of being put in parallel and are perfectly suited for an architecture distributed. Conventional parallel architectures for computing can theoretically be used for applications of cryptanalysis (Guneysu, 2006). An optical Architecture to Break Ciphers The targeted DES brute force attack has several characteristics. To begin with, expensive computational operations which are put in parallel. Next, there is no need of communication between single parallel instances. The next characteristic is the fact that the general expense for communication is not high owing to the fact that the stage of computation strongly outweighs the data input and output stages. According to Blaze et al, (1996), communication is almost entirely used for results reporting as well as initialization. A central control instance with regards to communication is capable of being accomplished by a conventional low cost personal computer, connected simply by an interface. This would imply that there is no need for a high-speed communication interface. The fourth characteristic is the fact that a DES brute-force attack and its following implementation require little memory. The final consequence of the above is the fact that the available memory on present day low cost FPGAs is sufficient (Guneysu, 2006). What this implies is that by making use of low-cost FPGAs, it is possible to develop a cost effective dynamic architecture which is capable of being reprogrammed which would be able to accommodate all the targeted architectures (Blaze et al, 1996). Realization of COPACOBANA Drawing back, the Cost-Optimized Parallel Code Breaker (COPACOBANA) meeting the needs available comprise of several independent-low prized FPGAs, connected to a hosting PC by way of a standard interface such as a USB. Moreover, such a standard interface permits to extend a host-PC with more than one device of COPACOBANA. The initialization of FPGAs, the control as well as the process of results accumulation is carried out by the host. Critical computations are carried out by the FPGAs, which meet the actual cryptanalytical architecture (Schleiffer, 2006). Developing a system of the above speculations with FPGA boards which are commercially available is certainly possible but at a cost. Therefore it is important to put into considerations the design and layout among others in coming up with the above kind of system (Schleiffer, 2006). This would therefore mean that our cost-performance design meant for cost optimization is only capable of being achieved if all functionalities are restricted to those required for code breaking. Arty the same time, many designs choices should be based on components and interfaces which are readily available (Guneysu, 2006). Conclusion In conclusion, cryptanalysis of symmetric and asymmetric ciphers is extremely demanding in terms of computations. It would be fair to hold the belief that breaking codes with conventional PCs as well as super-computers is very much costly. Bit-sizes of keys should be chosen in a way that traditional methods of code breaking do not succeed (Rouvroy et al 2003, pp. 181-193). This would mean that the only way to go through ciphers is to develop special-purpose hardware purposely meant for suitable algorithms. In the final analysis, traditional parallel architecture in the end equally appears to be too complicated and therefore not cost saving in finding solutions to cryptanalytical problems. As earlier observed, many of these problems can easily be put in parallel implying that the algorithms which correspond to them are equally capable of being parameterized to lower communication costs (Guneysu, 2006). A hardware architecture which is cost effective (COPACOBANA) is the end product of the algorithmic requirements of the intended problems of cryptanalysis. This work represents not only the design but also the first prototype of an effective design which meets the demands of the request. In the final analysis, COPACOBANA would be able to accommodate as many as 120 FPGAs which are less costly. At the same time, it is possible to break data encryption standard (DES) within a period of nine days. This would require a hardware design comprising of reprogrammable logic which could be adopted to accommodate any task, even those not necessarily in line with code breaking (Rouvroy et al 2003, pp. 181-193). References Blaze, M.. , Diffie, W. , Rivest, R. L. , Scheiner, B. , Shimomura, E. , and Weiner, M (1996). Minimal Key Lengths for Symmetry Ciphers to Provide Adequate Commercial Security. Ad Hoc Group of Cryptographers and Computer Scientists. Retrieved from December, 13, 2008 from http://www. counterpane. com/keylength. html. Clayton, R. and Bond, M. (2002). Experience Using a Low-Cost FPGA Design to Crack DES Keys. In B. S. Kaliski, C. K. Koc Cetin, and C. Paar, editors, Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems – CHES 2002, 4th International Workshop, Redwood Shores, CA, USA,volume 2523 of series, pages 579 – 592. Springer-Verlag. Conrad, E. (2007). Data Encryption Standard, The SANS Institute Diffie, W Hellman, M. E. (1977). Exhaustive cryptanalysis of the NBS Data Encryption Standard. Computer, 10(6): 74-84 Electronic Frontier Foundation. (1998). Cracking DES: Secrets of Encryption Research, Wiretap Poolitics Chip Design. O’Reilly Associates Inc. Federal Information Processing Standard. (1977). Data Encryption Standard, U. S Department of Commerce. Guneysu, T. E. (2006). Efficient Hardware Architecture for Solving the Discrete Logarithm Problem on Elliptic Curves. AAmasters thesis, Horst Gortz Institute, Ruhr University of Bochum. Landau, S. (2000). Standing the Test of Time: The Data Encryption Standard vol. 47, 3, pp. 341-349. Lenstra, A and Verheul, E. (2001). Selecting Cryptographic Key Sizes. Journal of Cryptology, 14(4):255–293. Rouvroy, G. , Standaert, F. X. , Quisquater, J. , and Legat, D. (2003). Design Strategies and Modified Descriptions to Optimize Cipher FPGA Implementations: Fast and Compact Results for DES and Triple-DES. In Field-Programmable Logic and Applications- FPL, pp. 181-193 Schleiffer, C. (2006). Design of Host Interface for COPACOBANA. Technical report, Studienarbeit, Host Gortz Institute, Ruhr University Bochum How to cite Breaking DES (Data Encryption Systems), Papers

How Interest Groups Effect Voting Essay Example For Students

How Interest Groups Effect Voting Essay For all those who have to tend the humiliation at the OB-GYN *officeIn Melbourne, Fl. one of the radio stations paid money *($100-$500) for people to tell their most embarrassing stories. This *one netted the winner $300.. * *She said: I was due later that week for an appointment with the *gynecologist when early one morning I received a call from his *office: I had been rescheduled for early that morning at 9:30am. I had * *just packed everyone off to work and school and it was around 8:45 *already. The trip to his office usually took about 35 minutes so I *didnt have any time to spare. As most women do, Im sure, I like to *take a little extra effort over hygiene when making such visits, but *this time I wasnt going to be able to make the full effort. * *So I rushed upstairs, threw off my dressing gown, wet the *washcloth and gave myself a wash in that area in front of the sink, *taking extra care to make sure that I was presentable. *I threw the washcloth in the clothes basket, donned some *clothes, hopped in the car and raced to my appointment. I was in the *waiting room only a few minutes when he called me in. Knowing the *procedure, as I am sure you all do, I hopped up on the table, looked *over at the other side of the room and pretended I was in Hawaii or *some other place a million miles away from here. * *I was a little surprised when he said: Mywe have taken a *little extra effort this morning, havent we?, but I didnt respond. *The appointment over, I heaved a sigh of relief and went home. *The rest of the day went normal, some shopping, cleaning and the evening * *meal,etc. * *At 8:30 that evening my 14 year old daughter was fixing to go to *a school dance, when she called down from the bathroom, Mom *wheres my washcloth? I called back for her to get another from the *cabinet. * *She called back, No I need the one that was here by the sink. *It had all my glitter and sparkles in it. .

Friday, May 1, 2020

Speed Cameras (Do Not Cut Accidents)

Question: Describe about the essay on Speed Cameras 'Do Not Cut Accidents'? Answer: Section 1 A speed camera is a device for capturing or recording fast-moving objects. The device captures photographic image onto a storage medium so that they can be played back in slow-motion. Speed camera works in conjunction with advanced technologies measuring average speed of fast-moving objects. The cameras are fixed at various locations using automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) that records the number plate fixed on vehicles. The camera uses infrared photography that enables the speed camera to work during day and night. Fixed speed cameras are installed at various locations such as side of the road for capturing number of vehicle. The mobile speed cameras are movable in the form of laser or radar handheld device, random police checks in marked or unmarked cars. The legal usage of speed cameras vary according to the laws and regulations of every state. The legal uses of speed cameras range to be set up in variety of locations such as school zones, work zones, highway work zones, c onstruction zones or Municipal Park. The penalties and fines also vary according to different state for a speeder crossing speed limits (Roads and Maritime Services 2016). Section 2 Speed camera saves lives. The statement can be proved using quantitative approach by presenting data of Royal Automobile ClubFoundation of London. The research was conducted by Professor Richard Allsop for interpreting and analysing data. The data provided are accurate as the measurements were made time to time in the vicinity of the camera. The speed data is provided on the website by 85th percentile speed for the vehicles exceeding speed limit. According to the 2011 reports, there was a decline in road accidents due to serious collisions by 27% after installation of speed cameras (Massey 2013). The personal injury collisions declined by 15% in the vicinity of 551 cameras ( 2016). Ms Townsend reported a reduction of deaths and serious injuries by 42% in a three-year period. Not only speed cameras save deaths, but also save cost of emergency services (Smale 2010). There was also a reduction in proportion of speeding vehicles by 10 to 35%. According to the results of IIHS Researchers in the Governors Highway Safety Association, there was reduction in behaviour of the drivers exceeding speed limit by 59% ( 2015). The studies show that there was reduction in fatal or serious collisions, personal injury collisions, casualties or people killed (Wilson et al. 2012). Section 3 Source: Massey 2013 There are controversies relating to speed cameras causing or reducing fatal accidents. It is argued that collision rates rise due to presence of speed cameras. Speed cameras act as a dangerous distraction to riders as they keep checking their speed looking at the speedometer instead of concentrating on the road. It has been figured out by the Department for Transport that only 5% of the accidents are detected (Smale 2010). The resources for detecting accidents are disproportionate. The speed cameras do not account for the reasons for road conditions, misjudging distances or failure to give indications. The cameras are only placed at locations where there is heavy accident record. Speed cameras are also considered a source of massive income and job creation. There is heavy income and job generation with the sale of speed cameras. The speed cameras also increase the fatality gap (Massey 2013). The other factors that contribute to road accidents are increase in traffic, increased use of motorcycles while driving, decline in wearing helmets are ignored. The actual contributors to saving lives are the gadgets and technology that help in improving control of the vehicles. The paramedics with better equipment have been capable of saving lives and not the speed cameras. It is necessary to change the driving behaviour of individuals rather than introducing speed cameras (Winnett 2011). Not much change in behaviour of people has been observed and there has been deterring behaviour of drivers. The money earned by the speed camera companies are used for manufacturing, designing, installing and maintaining speed cameras rather than government revenue that can be used for paying army administrators who spend their time keeping a check on the roads (Wells 2012). Contrarily, the speed cameras encourage responsibility among individuals. The motorists are aware while they increase speed and they avoid being flashed in the cameras. The advanced technologies alert the car drivers through satellite when they increase speed and they have a chance to act as responsible citizens (Massey 2013). An overall sense of awareness is developed as the motorists and car drivers drive more carefully with a fear of being caught. The surveillance and responsibility may not be taken by the drivers and they would take chances or dangerous risks. Another argument for people trying to get rid of speed cameras is that they have to pay fines for speeding vehicles (Roads and Maritime Services 2016). The facts and differences in the reduction of accidents must be considered by the government rather than bowing under public pressure. The people dislike fines for obvious reasons and government must not keep public lives at stake just for convenience. It is important to mai ntain speed cameras as excessive speeding kills a lot of people every year. Both the likelihood of the victim and those involved are affected by accidents. It is not possible for police officers to run after every speeding vehicle for which speed cameras can be introduced to keep regular check in the vicinity. Not only speed cameras save injury, but they also save money that involves cost. Many drivers do not cross speed limits intentionally. It is also a source of educating drivers and other people to keep within speed limits (McKenzie 2010). Conclusion Conclusively, the speed cameras must be introduced and maintained. It is too easy to creep above the limit, but there are some simple and practical things drivers who find it difficult to stay with speed limits can do to help themselves. Education must be provided through measures and campaigns for educating people to keep within limits. Speed cameras can be added for making the citizens responsible. References Groves, J., 2011. Speed Cameras 'Do Not Cut Accidents'... they create them, study finds. [online] Mail Online. Available at: [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]., 2015.Speed cameras cut injury crashes. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Massey, R., 2013.Speed cameras 'increase risk of serious or fatal crashes': New RAC investigation raises doubts over their usefulness. [online] Mail Online. Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. McKenzie, S., 2010.Speed camera sceptics endanger us all. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]., 2016.Deaths and serious injuries down a quarter near speed cameras. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Roads and Maritime Services, 2016.Fixed speed cameras. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Smale, W., 2010.Do speed cameras really cut accidents? - BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Wells, H., 2012.The fast and the furious. Farnham: Ashgate. Wilson, Willis, Hendrikz, Brocque, and Bellamy, 2012. Do speed cameras reduce road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths?.John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Winnett, R., 2011.Speed cameras fail to cut accidents. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016].